and Scoring Keys. Appendix 1. This appendix includes all the principal forms and adaptations of the Barrett-Lennard Relationship. Inventory (BLRI), presented in. PDF | The search for and measurement of important relationship qualities have always been of interest to family therapists. Within a Rogerian. Summary.-A item short form of the Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory is developed to assess the experience of the facilitative conditions in the.
|Language:||English, Dutch, Hindi|
|ePub File Size:||21.36 MB|
|PDF File Size:||12.13 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
The Relationship Inventory: A Complete Resource and Guide, First. Edition, Godfrey T. of Goff Barrett-Lennard's significant contributions. They say: It is a. Fam Process. Mar;28(1) The Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (BLRI): current and potential uses with family systems. Ganley RM(1). The Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (RI) has many advantages as a measure of instrument itself-scoring, forms, and evidence for reliability and validity.
En el estudio clinico, los pacientes completaron la adaptacion espahola del Beck Depression Inventory BDI antes del tratarmento y despues de la tercera y de la decima sesion de psicoterapia. Un elevado numero de sus items correlaciono de manera adecuada con la puntuacion total de su respectiva subescala. Ambas pruebas evidenciaron una excelente fiabilidad consistencia interna y una excelente validez convergente.
Su validez discriminante exhibio algunas limitaciones cuando ambas medidas correlacionaron con dos pruebas de empatia. En cuanto a la validez predictiva, el WAI-P total y la subescala tareas del WAI-T explicaron por separado un porcentaje moderado de la varianza del cambio de los pacientes en el BDI despues de la decima sesion de psicoterapia. Estos resultados fueron satisfactorios y coherentes con los hallados en los estudios que han empleado las correspondientes versiones originales del WAI en ingles.
Introduction The therapeutic or working alliance has aroused the interest of therapists and researchers in recent decades and is one of the most widely studied constructs in psychotherapy process research.
According to Bordin the working alliance has three components: therapist-patient agreement regarding the goals of psychotherapy; therapist-patient agreement regarding the tasks to be completed in psychotherapy; and therapist-patient bond, which "is likely to be expressed and felt in terms of liking, trusting, respect for each other, and a sense of common commitment and shared understanding in the activity" Bordin, , p. Users respond to each item using a seven-point Likert scale. In addition, the large, significant correlations seen in later studies between the WAI-P or WAI-T and other measures of alliance provide additional evidence for the convergent validity of both versions of the WAI.
The Barrett-Lennard Relationship Inventory (BLRI): current and potential uses with family systems.
In terms of the factorial structure of the WAI-P and WAI-T, the few studies that have considered it have found different factorial compositions for the two measures. The aim of this study was to adapt the WAI-P and WAIT for use with and by Spanish-speaking people, because the English-language versions of these measures have been used widely in more than two decades of psychotherapeutic research.
To this end, a systematic translation of the WAI-P and WAI-T into Spanish was carried out, a pilot study was designed to assess how well both translations worked, and finally a wider-reaching clinical study was performed to examine their main psychometric properties.
Evidence for the construct validity of both alliance measures was derived from the analysis of correlations between each measure's subscales, correlations with another alliance measure, and correlations with various demographic variables and an empathy measure.
For its part, evidence for the criterion validity was derived from the analysis of correlations between the Spanish-language WAI-P and WAI-T and the change undergone by patients treated with psychotherapy.
As such, it was our hope that the Spanish-language versions would demonstrate similar reliability and validity to the English-language originals. Methods Legal requirements Professor Adam O. The limited copyright license number was Subsequently, four Spanish psychotherapy experts examined the preliminary Spanish translation.
For the instructions and each of the 36 items of each measure, the experts indicated their level of understanding on a point scale. When they felt it was necessary, they proposed a maximum of three edited versions of the text that they believed were more understandable. The instructions and items of the preliminary Spanish versions were considered acceptable if they met two criteria: they were rated "10" on the understanding scale by all four experts, and they elicited no suggested edits from the experts.
For the instructions and other items, the experts' suggested edits were combined and incorporated into the measures. The experts then reviewed the reformulated instructions and items. For the remaining items, the translators and the main author of this study agreed upon the best translation. Finally, two linguists from the University of Alcala reviewed both measures and reported that they could be understood by most Spanish-speaking people.
Pilot study After their third psychotherapy session, 10 outpatients with depressive disorders referred to three Spanish public health centers filled out the Spanish-language WAI-P, and 10 integrative therapists filled out the Spanish-language WAI-T. The patients and therapists were unaware of each other's responses. Based on the corrected item-total correlations for all items from these two measures, their reliability internal consistency , and the therapists' opinions, some changes were made to the questionnaires.
Two linguists from the University of Alcala approved all reworked items. Clinical study Participants. Thirty-six outpatients who were referred to five Spanish public health centers filled out questionnaires see below both before treatment and after their third psychotherapy session.
Table 1 shows their demographic characteristics.
According to the therapists, 31 of them Of these 36 patients, 30 filled out questionnaires again after the tenth session. No patient received any incentive for taking part in this research. Twenty-one therapists filled out questionnaires both before treatment and after the third psychotherapy session.
Review of The Relationship Inventory: A Complete Resource and Guide
Table 2 shows their demographic and professional characteristics. Of them, 16 filled out questionnaires again after the tenth session. All therapists offered their services at Spanish public health centers.
Of the 21 therapists taking part in the study before treatment and after the third psychotherapy session, 15 treated one patient each, four treated two patients each, one treated six patients, and one treated seven patients. Of the 16 therapists taking part in the study after the tenth session, 11 treated one patient each, three treated two patients each, one treated six patients, and one treated seven patients. The patients underwent individual psychotherapy sessions as their main form of outpatient treatment.
The psychotherapy sessions were 1 hr long. During the first three psychotherapy sessions, 30 patients were treated with integrative psychotherapy, three with interpersonal psychotherapy of depression, two with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, and one with humanistic psychotherapy. Later, four patients dropped out of treatment three had been treated with integrative psychotherapy, and one with humanistic psychotherapy.
In addition, two patients treated with integrative psychotherapy were excluded from the analysis because the therapist who had been treating them moved to another health center. The patients were not assigned randomly to these treatment conditions. Patient and therapist ratings were taken through the end of the tenth psychotherapy session.
A number of measures were used, as described below. WAI-P items 1, 20, and 29 Bond ; 3, 9, 10, 12, 27, and 34 Goal ; and 7, 11, 15, 31, and 33 Task are written in the negative. Scores for the negative items are inverted before calculating the total WAI-P alliance score or a subscale score sum of the scores of 36 or 12 items, respectively.
The scoring range of the overall WAI-P is points. WAI-T items 1, 20, and 29 Bond ; 3, 9, 10, 12, 27, and 34 Goal ; and 7, 11, 15, 31, and 33 Task are written in the negative. The scoring range of the overall WAI-T is points. It consists of 19 items with six possible response options ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 6 strongly agree.
For item 17, the corrected item-total correlation was.
For item 11, the corrected item-total correlation was. It consists of 16 items with six possible response options ranging from 1 no, I strongly feel that it is not true to 6 yes, I strongly feel that it is true. The scoring range of the overall EUS-P is points. The EUS-T Barrett-Lennard, measures the therapist's perception of the empathy he or she has shown toward the patient.
The scoring range of the overall EUS-T is points. For item 7, the corrected item-total correlation was. The revised BDI measures the intensity of depression. It consists of 21 items with four possible response options 0, 1, 2, or 3 arranged in order of intensity.
The scoring range of the overall BDI is points. Before treatment the patients filled out the BDI as a screening tool. The selected patients who decided to participate in this study provided written consent and filled out a demographic data sheet. At the same time, their therapists separately filled out a demographic data sheet.
This case was not used in the data analysis. There were a few individual unscored items across the different measures. For these items the participant's mean score on the corresponding subscale or scale was used as a substitute. The normality of the variables with 30 cases was evaluated using the Shapiro-Wilk test.
The homoscedasticity of all variables was evaluated using the Levene test. The null hypothesis of homogeneity of variance was not rejected for any variable. The corrected item-total correlations of the WAI-P and WAI-T items were obtained by correlating the scores for each item with the total score for their respective subscale minus that item. Cronbach's alpha a coefficient was used to determine the reliability internal consistency of both alliance measures.
As for the construct validity of the WAI-P and WAI-T, Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to estimate the relationship between their subscales after the third psychotherapy session, and Spearman's correlation coefficients were used after the tenth session.
Patient change in the BDI was determined by linear regression analysis; the dependent variable was the BDI after the tenth psychotherapy session, and the independent variable was the baseline BDI. Accordingly, with respect to the criterion validity of the WAI-P and WAI-T, their predictive validity was determined by correlating scores for both versions of the WAI administered after the third psychotherapy session with the BDI residual gain scores, using Pearson's correlation coefficients.
In depth analysis of the relationship between these variables was conducted using two stepwise linear regression analyses. The correlation was. The correlations of items 33 and 31 were.
In both measures at both time points, the correlation between the Goal and Task subscales was greater than the correlation between Bond and Goal and between Bond and Task. Regarding discriminant validity, the WAI-P and WAI-T total and subscales did not correlate significantly with the majority of demographic variables for patients and therapists, respectively.
Similarly, the WAI-T did not correlate significantly with the therapists' initial training. In a stepwise linear regression analysis, independent variables were the overall WAI-P and its three subscales administered after the third psychotherapy session, and the dependent variable was patient change in the BDI after the tenth session. In a second analysis of this kind, independent variables were the overall WAI-T and its three subscales administered after the third psychotherapy session, and the dependent variable was patient change in the BDI after the tenth session.
The reliability internal consistency of the Spanish-language WAI-P and WAI-T were excellent according to the criteria of Muhiz , as there was strong covariance between the items in each overall measure and the items of the corresponding subscales.
The score for each form is calculated as the sum of scores assigned to the single items for items expressed in negative form — 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 15 — scores are inverted. Participants Thirty-nine dyads of participants were formed. Between-group comparisons showed that psychotherapists, psychologists and nontherapists were not significantly different regarding age and educational level. All participants signed informed consent forms in accordance with guidelines of the Ethics Committee School of Psy- chology, University of Padova.
The pseudopatients agreed to take part in three minute long video recorded sessions during which they were asked to talk about a personal problem with one of three professionals.
Feel free to ex- press yourself in whatever way you wish. There will be an audio signal to let you know when the time is up. Both members of the dyad were then asked to fill out the appropriate form of the SEP. Pseudopatients filled out the SEP-A, used to evaluate the empathy they felt they had conveyed to the listener. The listeners filled out the SEP-M, used to evaluate the empathy that they had felt for the pseu- dopatient during the session.
The possible presence of nonhomogeneous items was evaluated by calculating item-total correlations and observing the variations of the alpha coefficient ob- tained by omitting single items. Item-total correlations were satisfactory for both forms, except for two critical items: item 4 and item 7.
However, deletion of any item did not cause a relevant increase in the alpha coefficient. Validity Convergent validity. Finally, with regard to criterion validity, therapists showed higher scores than psychologists and nontherapists see Table 2. Bonferroni correction was applied to all post-hoc comparisons. According to the results of our study, the EU subscale SEP in Ital- ian , showed good psychometric properties which make its application useful both with regard to clinical practice and research purposes.
In other words, these results seem to imply that the two measured aspects of empathy are not overlapping.
In accordance with this hypothesis, there are several empirical findings in favor of the nonverbal communication influence on empathy as perceived by 6 TPM Vol. If our findings are interpreted in this direction, the existence of two aspects of empathy de- scribed in the literature Singer et al.
Since it is easy to administer, it can be used in numerous ways in con- nection to quantitative descriptions of empathy perceived during psychotherapeutic sessions or in connection to clinical consultations. It can also be used in clinical contexts allowing therapists to assess their own work or as an evaluation instrument used to supervise clinical activity.
This tool does not affect the therapeutic setting in any way as it is filled out later. No specific competencies are necessary to apply it and feedback about it and feedback about the empathy conveyed to the patient during a session is provided immediately.
The SEP seems to display good criterion validity since therapists obtained higher scores with respect to the other participants. Its capacity to detect empathic effectiveness makes it par- ticularly suitable for application during psychotherapy training to check relational competencies and to demonstrate the effectiveness of training.
It could be particularly useful in the Italian con- text, in which there is a shortage of parameters evaluating the efficacy of training despite the fact that new schools of psychotherapy with ever more specific approaches are continuously being founded Borsci, ; Galli, Some limitations of the present study should be taken into account for future studies.
Finally, the flexibility of SEP paves the way for new versions of the instrument that can be applicable in different contexts besides the psychological one. Specific versions could be con- structed to evaluate the empathy between a teacher and a student, between the two partners of a couple, among members of a family or in work relationships, and in many other social situations.
Therapist training: A critical review of skill training studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 10 5 , Journal of Adolescence, 32 2 , The Relationship Inventory now: Issues and advances in theory, method, and use. Pinsof Eds. Borsci, G. Psicoterapia e Scienze Umane, 2, Burns, D.
Therapeutic empathy and recovery from depression in cogni- tive-behaviour therapy: A structural equation model. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychol- ogy, 60, Helping and human relation: A primer for lay and professional helpers. De Girolamo, G.
Evidenced Based Psychiatry: verso un nuovo paradigma nella pratica clinica [Evidences Based Psychiatry: Toward a new paradigm for clinical practice]. Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria, 71, Di Lillo, M. Academic Medi- cine, 84 9 , Psychotherapy, 48, Greenberg, L. Psychotherapy: Theory, research, prac- tice, training. Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: Literature review and proposed guidelines.
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 46 12 , Automatic and controlled empathy. Empathic accuracy. Ickes Eds. Huang, C. Social desirability and the clinical self-report inventory: Methodological reconsideration.
Journal of Clinical Psychology, 54 4 , CO;2-I Kurtz, R. Different approaches to the measurement of therapist empathy and their relationship to therapy outcomes.Crocker, J. Preview Unable to display preview. Finally, it is possible that the correlations for the predictive validity of the WAI-P are somewhat inflated due to our use of the same source of information the patients about alliance and the results of psychotherapy.
Suggestions for further research were offered, and the question was raised as to whether either the BLRI or the TCAE scale were in fact tapping any of the phases of empathy described in the present study.
Claghorn Ed. The pseudopatients agreed to take part in three minute long video recorded sessions during which they were asked to talk about a personal problem with one of three professionals.
En cuanto a la validez predictiva, el WAI-P total y la subescala tareas del WAI-T explicaron por separado un porcentaje moderado de la varianza del cambio de los pacientes en el BDI despues de la decima sesion de psicoterapia.