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PDF | Th e Mapping Digital Media project, which examines the changes in-depth, aims to e most notorious case was that of the reporter Gustavo Escanlar. Ray Loriga, José Ángel Mañas, Antonio Domínguez, Jordi Soler, Gustavo Escanlar, Martín Casariego Córdoba, among others. There are other Latin American. Regarding language, one notes a much greater use of Spanglish in Voces latinas en U.S.A. Spanglish is celebrated deliriously in Gustavo Escanlar's.
D9 For the generation of Spanish American writers forced into exile by the Condor Plan dictatorships of the s, Canada — possessing the merely negative virtue of not being the enemy empire — was a convenient place to go, but was certainly no Mecca. The asymmetrical Canada-U. Even when the field, dominantly centred on the U. A glance at a more repre- sentative writer, such as Jacques Poulin whose Volkswagen Blues  really is a significant inter-American novel , would suffice to confirm the point.
For Giacoppe, Spanglish is analogous to joual, but the superficial similarity is misleading. The problem of course is that Canadians are Americans, if one re- stores to this term its proper meaning. The peculiar, historically-conditioned pathology of English-Canadian mentality is exemplified in the oft-cited verses of F. We turn our backs on our Anglo-American cousins and gaze northward — to a metaphysical North — in search of a quasi-transcendental escape from our historical situation.
That our porous southern border barely holds the U. Emerging from a cloud: The Inter-American discursive position of Hispano-Canadian literature 27 cultural identity; only our strategic alliance with Franco-America in the Canadian federation prevents our total absorption by the Anglo-American sea to the south.
The following examination of two representative Spanish-langua- ge anthologies of short stories, one from Canada and the other from the U. I shall use this subtitle as a handy tag to refer to the latter anthology. Regarding language, one notes a much greater use of Spanglish in Voces latinas en U. Language issues are ne- arly always treated with humour.
In Retrato de una nube, by contrast, Spanglish is seldom employed by the Hispano-Canadian writers, except to illustrate the tragic degrada- tion of the mother tongue. Emerging from a cloud: The Inter-American discursive position of Hispano-Canadian literature 29 Jelou, aguelita, estoy oquey, y du?
The italicized Spanish-phonetic orthography applied to the English words signals that they are barbarisms invading and destroying the mother tongue. However, this does not mean that Hispano-Canadian writers are lan- guage purists.
GUSTAVO ESCANLAR PDF
Hybrid languages, as well as the habit of code-switching, develop out of a sustained coexistence in one place of two languages. Spanglish is not a Canadian phenomenon because, unlike Spanish in the U. All authors gathered in Retrato are first-generation immigrants, but so are most of those in Voces latinas en U. His first-per- son narrator is a Mexican immigrant who must come to grips not only with English but also with Spanglish — never a problem for Hispanic immigrants to Canada. Giannina Braschi, native of the U.
It is a gesture of appropriation carrying the message: we are here to stay; we live here. Unlike the stories of Voces en U. The eponymous protago- nist has been damaged linguistically his childhood in L. But nothing in either of these stories betrays the fact that their author has been living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan for a decade and a half. Emerging from a cloud: The Inter-American discursive position of Hispano-Canadian literature 31 whose structure entails a dual setting between country of origin and North American nation.
It is the very strong attachment to the Spanish-American countries of origin evidenced in Retrato de una nube, rather than any fastidious cult of language purity, that naturally excludes Spanglish and Spanish-English code-switching. The corresponding lack of attachment to Canada, as com- pared with the embrace by the voces latinas of the U.
Saravia is exceptional among his generation of Hispano-Canadian writers for his active engagement with the country of arrival — its history and cultural geography, its languages and literatures.
The protagonist, solitary and ensconced in his east-end Montreal apartment, studies his Canadian environment like an anthropologist, visiting a pow-wow at Kahnawake, reading, watching documentaries, all of which prepares him for a purely fantastic, conceptual adventure. The single, fleeting encounter with another human being — an elder at Kahnawake — serves a strictly informative purpose; the old man might as well be an image from a TV documentary.
Otherwise, there is no social interaction, no direct engagement with Canadian social reality as it is lived. Alongside the universally hu- man pathos of the situation, there is the pathetic poignancy of a fleeting encounter between two cultures, Bolivian and English-Canadian.
Unlike the ongoing, historical U. The editorial organization has a large bearing on the sense of place or relative lack thereof in the two respective anthologies. Voces latinas en U. The national territory of Fortress America is thus effectively encircled.
But the editors have cleverly keyed each region to a mainstream U. Taking advantage of the existing cultural map of the U.
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Emerging from a cloud: The Inter-American discursive position of Hispano-Canadian literature 35 baila salsa. But the apparently tamed beast has a voracious ap- petite for consumption, and it keeps on growing, like the Blob.
The new, expanded quasi-official version of the U. Latino canon would seem to have the board pretty well covered. A vaporous nebula of writers on the north- ern edge, they are presented in Retrato de una nube not according to region or any thematic criterion but in alphabetical order, a textual disposition that effectively leaves the anthology all but mute as a collective statement.
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Two Tales of Violence Not surprisingly, given the history of U. In their great majority, Spanish Americans come north either expelled by political violence or compelled by economic violence, i.
It is not the immediate violence that permeates daily life in the U. By contrast, the adolescent Adelita, estranged from her mother in a safe and boring Canadian town, is not caught by a stray bullet, not even metaphorically. The tragic irony is that Yolanda tried to protect Adelita from exactly that kind of violence, which was endemic in the Guatemala of the s and 80s.
Once in Canada, their paths fatally separate. Adelita is subjected to the ubiquitous violence spread through the mediatized North American culture industries that prey on youth, aid- ed by those pressurized incubators of violence that Canadian public high schools have become.
A comparison with another tale of violence, this one from Voces la- tinas en U. He dreams that his Chicano father, a poor agricultural labourer in Texas and other border states, is holding aloft the U.
Still dreaming, the boy then looks down from the sky to see himself below with the U. The father, whose dwarfish stature reflects his condition of an embittered, angry, defeated man, is at once tied by a fatal curse to Mexico the buried umbilical cord and fervently devoted to the imperial U.
Worshipping the selfish god, or god of selfishness, and taking out his frustration through acts of violence against his family, the father is caught in a self-defeating sadomasochism which is fatally per- petuated in his son who, upon becoming a father himself, is again plagued by the nightmare, except he himself is now carrying the flag. The metaphorics of the story clearly figure the Mexico-U.
Yolanda knows nothing of Canada except that it is very far away; she seems to believe, mistakenly, that noth- ing connects the two countries, separated as they are by the enormous com- bined landmass of the U. Likewise, Canadians — English- Canadians especially — are in general quite ignorant of Guatemala and of the fact that Canadian mining companies, in the past and present, have in- tervened there and many other countries in Latin America and elsewhere in a destructive and predatory fashion, often in collusion with corrupt and even genocidal dictators.
Inheriting its exploitive role from British-colonial enterprise, English-Canadian capitalism has become a junior partner of the U.
The protagonist, like the author, gets a doctoral degree in Spanish American literature at the University of Santa Barbara. Puro ranchero. Lonely and lost, he meets Monica in the Spanish language class he teaches at the univer- sity in Austin.
Monica had lost her Spanish along with the accent in her first name. By re-learning Spanish, she now seems on the verge of recuperating her lost cultural past. Implied is not vengeful vindication, nor a stridently ideological discourse demand- ing justice, but rather the possibility of a peaceful modus vivendi between the long-established Spanish-American Chicanos with Anglo-America, if only in the island-like city of Austin, whose ambience is vividly evoked.
The protagonist, by contrast, refuses that vindictive response to alienation.
Three women who have immigrated from elsewhere meet at the Bri- tannia hockey rink in east-end Vancouver, the traditional working-class zone of the city. This classic clash of values — a staple theme of Canadian im- migration stories in the twentieth century — is faced by the three women bound by a non-ideological feminine solidarity. There are two aspects of this story that make it powerful.
First of all, its lack of triumphalism, even though its denouement promises the over- coming of racism to attain multicultural living-together. There is no implicit triumph of politically-correct ideology; instead there is primary sense of humanity and community-building solidarity.
It brings a new perspective that contributes to the ongoing development of Canadian life. Luzia reminds us of what we forget. Emerging from a cloud: The Inter-American discursive position of Hispano-Canadian literature 43 has moved north on the Pacific coast, displaced her position along the unbroken line of a continental continuum, and brought another American perspective to Canada.
The many national and regional literatures of Spanish America are neither parts of a continuous, homogeneous entity called Latin American literature, nor are they isolated literary entities with no connection to one another.
This much was already clear. What is new is that the archipelagic concept permits one to conceive of the Hispanic literary archipelago ex- tending well beyond its traditional continental territory — that which was formerly colonized by the Spanish empire — and much further north into territories colonized by the French and British and finally the U. But the cultural geography of these contiguous territories varies greatly. Staying with the archipelagic metaphor, one can say that in travelling north through the borderlands one experiences important cultural sea-changes, porous though the Mexico-U.
The northern zones of the Hispanic archipelago superimpose themselves on the existing cultural archipelagos and, in so doing, enter into a process of transculturation with their idiosyncratic, island-like shapes.
No denizen of the U.
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Consequently, the U. Even the decision to deliberately separate the terms hispano and canadiense rather than write hispanocanadiense is eloquent of an as-yet missing sense of connectedness between these Spanish Ameri- can writers and their Canadian context. And yet, this sense of disorientation is in fact entirely consistent with English-Canadian historical experience; it has only been quite recently, in the last few decades, that English Canada has begun imaginatively to form an answer.
Does it even exist? We understand more than the citizens of almost any other country in the world just how tenuous is the very idea of the modern nation-state. We have learned the absur- dity of nationhood from the land and from political experience.
If those of us who were born and raised here are still wondering if Canada really exists, there can be little wonder that recently arrived Hispano-Canadians feel what Borges verbalized. The Hispano-Canadian literary archipelago is only beginning to emerge, and it does not appear to have calqued the existing archipelagos of Canadian literature written in French and English — notwithstanding the exploratory work of the precocious geocultural navigator Alejandro Saravia, who has indeed explored those Canadian literary archipelagos CHEADLE, The collective Hispano-Canadian literary nebula is only beginning to con- dense into discrete island-forms.
Not surprisingly, the island of Montreal has been especially fertile for literatures in both French and English, before Hispanic writing took root there. Whether one conceives of His- pano-Montreal as part of Quebec or as part of a trans-provincial formation, it stands out clearly as an important island of the Hispano-Canadian nar- rative archipelago.
The second most visible topographical feature emerging from Re- trato de una nube is Ottawa. Oth- er islets are scattered from Fredericton in New Brunswick in the east to Vancouver on the west coast — an atomized nebula whose collective work does not yet adumbrate any cartographical design. The concentration of Hispano-Canadian writing in the bilingual Montreal-Ottawa axis is surely significant.
Ilan Stavans can confidently state that U. In Canada, there is a three-way connection, with a tendency to open to further connections. As a result of this encounter with bilingual, multicultural Canada — and in spite of its dispersion across a continental sea from Fredericton to Vancouver — Hispano-Canadian writing presents a recognizably distinct whole, rather than a spill-over of U.
Latino literature. From the com- parison of Voces latinas en U. Emerging from a cloud: The Inter-American discursive position of Hispano-Canadian literature 47 thematics comes into view.
Todo no es suficiente. La corta e intensa vida de Gustavo Escanlar
Instead of a triumphant or hysterical or ironic embrace of the United States, one finds a sense of bemusement and dis- tance in Canada; in lieu of a clear sense of place, disorientation; rather than straightforward biculturalism resulting in Spanglish , a tentative negotia- tion with complex multiculturalism while conserving Spanish.
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Gustavo Escanlar es un escritor que no encuentra un lugar de Yolanda knows nothing of Canada except that it is very far away; she seems to believe, mistakenly, that noth- ing connects the two countries, separated as they are by the enormous com- bined landmass of the U. The national territory of Fortress America is thus effectively encircled. Ana Oje- da. La inmigrante.
Voces latinas en U.