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Printing a Message 3 Sample Program 2: Adding Two Numbers 6 Sample Program 3: Interest Calculation 8 Sample Program 4: Use of Subroutines 10 Sample Program 5: ELSE Statement 5. ELSE Statements 5. Operator 5.
C Balaguruswamy Books
Free Altering the Size of a Block: Some Guidelines Bit-level Programming Appendix II: Characters Appendix III: Projects ,? Since C combines the features of high—level language with the elements of the assembler, it is suitable for both systems and applications programming. It is undoubtedly-the most widely used general-purpose language today.
The version that incorporates the new features is now referred to as C The fourth edition of ANSI C has been thoroughly revised and enlarged not only to incorporate the numerous suggestions received both from teachers and students across the country but also to highlight the enhancements and new features added by C The second chapter discusses how to declare the constants, variables and data types.
The third chapter describes the built-in operators and how to build expressions using them.
The fourth chapter details the input and output operations. Further, decision making and looping is discussed in Chapter six, which covers while, do and for loops. Arrays and ordered arrangement of data elements are important to any programming language and have been covered in chapters seven and eight.
Strings are also covered in Chapter eight. Chapters nine and ten are on functions, structures and unions. Pointers, perhaps the most difficult part of C to understand, is covered in Chapter eleven in the most user-friendly manner. The above organization would help the students in understanding C better if followed appropriately. Each major feature of the language is treated in depth followed by a complete program example to illustrate its use. The sample programs are meant to be both simple and educational.
Two new projects are added at the end of the book for students to go through and try on their own. Each chapter includes a section at the, beginning to introduce the topic in a proper per- spective. It also provides a quick loqkyiuto the features that are discussed in the chapter. Wherever necessary, pictiinal dehciifztions of concepth are included to -improve clarity and to facilitate better understanding. The Just Remember section at theend of the chapters lists out helpful hints and possible problem areas.
Numerous chapter-end questions and exercises provide ample opportunities to the readers to review the concepts leamed and to practice their applications. Supplementary Material With this revision we have tried to enhance the online learning center too.
The supplemen- tary material would include the following: For the Instructor Cl Solutions to the debugging exercises For the Student D Exclusive project for implementation with code, step-by-step description and user manual El Code for the two projects given in the book D Two mini projects D Reading material on C This book is designed for all those who wish to be C programmers, regardless of their past knowledge and experience in programming.
But this strange sounding language is one of the most popular computer languages today because it is a structured, high-level, machine independent language.
It allows software developers to develop programs without worrying about the hardware platforms where they will be implemented. Although it never became popular in USA, it was widely used in Europe. Subsequently, several languages were announced. C uses many concepts from these languages and added the concept of data types and other powerful features. This operating system, which was also developed at Bell Laboratories, was coded almost entirely in C. UNIX is one of the most popular network operating systems in use today and the heart of the Internet data superhighway.
For many years, C was used mainly in academic environments, but eventually with the release of many C compilers for commercial use and the increasing popularity of UNIX, it began to gain widespread support among computer professionals. Today, C is running under a variety of operating system and hardware platforms. The rapid growth of C led to the development of different versions of the language that were similar but often incompatible.
This posed a serious problem for system developers. They continue to i. The result was the standard for C. This version is usually referred to as C The history andudievelopment of C is illustrated in Fig. We, therefore, discuss all the new features added by C99 in an appendix separately so that the readers who are interested can quickly refer to the new material and use them wherever possible. It is a robust language whose rich set of built-in functions and operators can be used to write any complex program.
The C compiler combines the capabilities of an assembly language with the features of a high-level language and therefore it is well suited for writing both system software and business packages. In fact, many of the C compilers available in the market are written in C. This is due to its variety of data types and powerful operators.
For example, a program to increment avariable from 0 to takes about one second in C while it takes more than 50 seconds in an interpreter BASIC. Several standard functions are available which can be used for developing programs.
C is highly portable. This means that C programs written for one computer can be run on another with little or no modification. A proper collection of these modules would make a complete program. This modular structure makes program debugging, testing and maintenance easier. Another important feature of C is its ability to extend itself.
A C program is basically a collection of functions that are supported by the C library. We can continuously add our own functions to C library.
With the availability of a large number of functions, the programming task becomes simple. The main is a special function used by the U system to tell the computer where the program starts. Every program must have exactly one main function.
Txi case, the closing brace also marks the 'end. The function body contains a set of instructions to perform the given task. In this case, the function body contains three statements out of which only the printf line is an executable statement.
Although comments can appear anywhere, they cannot be nested in C. That means, we cannot have comments inside comments. Since comments do not affect the execution speed and the size of a compiled program, we should use them liberally in our programs. They help the programmers and other users in understanding the various functions and operations of a program and serve as an aid to debugging and testing. We shall see the use of comment lines more in the examples that follow.
The concepts of compilation and linking are explained later in this chapter, The printf function causes everything between the starting and the ending quotation marks to be printed out. In this case, the output will be: I see. I remember Note that the print line ends with a semicolon. Every statement in C should end with a semicolon ; mark.
This can be achieved by adding another pr-intf function as shown below: These arguments are simply stnngs of characters to be printed out.
This combination is collectively called the newline character A newline character Instructs the computer to go to the next new line. However, note that there is no space between , and I. For example, the statement - pr1'ntf "I see, n I remember! However, this is not necessary for the functions print]: See Chapter 4 for more on input and output functions. C does make a distinction between uppercase and lowercase letters.
In C, everything iswritten in lowercase letters. However, uppercase letters are used for symbolic names; representing constants. Figure 1. All C programs need a main function. Following forms are allowed. Thekeyword V0 d means that the function does not return any information to the operating system an int means that the function returns aniinteger value to the operating system. Zf", amount ; This program when executed will produce the following output: It is a good practice to use comment lines in the beginning to give infhrmation such as name of the program, author, date, etc.
Comment characters are also used in other lines to indicate line numbers. The words number and amount are variable names that are used to store numeric data.
The numeric data may be either in integer form or in real form. In C, all variables should be declared to tell the compiler what the variable names are and what type of data they hold. The variables must be declared before they are used.
Declaration statements must appear at the beginning of the functions as shown in Fig. All declaration statements end with a semicolon; C supports many other data types and they are discussed in detail in Chapter 2. A list of keywords is given in Chapter 2. Data is stored in a variable by assigning a data value to it.
This is done in lines 8 and The next statement is an output statement that prints the value of number. The print statement. Note that these arguments are Separated by a comma. The newline character n causes the next output to appear on a newline. The second and third lines begin with ltdefine instructions.
Whenever a symbolic name is encountered, the compiler substitutes the value associated with the name automatically. These values remain constant throughout the execution of the program. QMfor a period of 10 years with an initial"; 2 50 investment of Therefore I V: For example, the statement.
They can also be declared as - All computations and printing are accomplished in a while loop. In this case as long as the value of year is less than or equal to the value of PERIOD, the four statements that follow while are executed. Note that these four statements are grouped by braces. The concept and types of loops are discussed in Chapter 6. They are discussed in Chapter 3.
The program shown in Fig.
The program will print the following output. The values of a and b are passed on to x and y respectively when the function mul is called. The standard mathematical functions are defined and kept as a part of C math library.
If we want to use any of these mathematical functions, we must add an lfinolude instruction in the program. The program calculates cosinevalues for angles 0, 10, Some functions are written by users, like us, and many others are stored in the C library. Library functions are grouped category-wise and stored in different files known as header files.
If we want to access the functions stored in the library, it is necessary to tell the compiler about the files to be accessed. This is achieved by using the preprocessor directive include as follows: Preprocessor directives are placed at the beginning of a program.
A function is a subroutine that may include one or more state- 7 1. To write a C program, we first create functions and then put them together. A C program may contain one or more sections as shown in Fig.
The documentation section consists of a set of comment lilies giving the name of the pro. The link section provides instructions to the compiler to link functions from the system library. There are some variables that are used in more than onelfunction. Such variables are called global variables and are declared in the global declaration section that the functions. Every C program must.
This section contains two parts, declaration part and executable part. The declaration part declares all the variablesrused in. There is at least one statement in the executable part.
These two parts must appear between the opening andlthe closing braces.
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The closing brace of the main function section is the logical end of the program. All statements in the declaration and executable parts end with a semicolon ;. All sections, except the main function section may be absent when they are not required. That is, the C compiler does not care, where on the line we begin typing, While this may be a licence for bad programming, we should try to use this fact to our advantage in , developing readable programs.
Although several alternative styles are possible, we should. First of all, we must develop the habit of writing programs in lowercase letters. C program statements are written in lowercase letters.
A proper indentation of braces andbtatements would make a program easierto read and debug. In this book, each statement is written on a separate line. This is very important for debugging and testing the program. Creating the program; 2. Linking the program with functions that are needed from the C library; and; 4. Executing the program. These are: The operating sysi tem, which is an interface between the hardware and the user handles the execution of user programs.
DOS for nncrocomputers. Source Program Object code Check your system manual.
Now the program is ready for compilation. The translation is done alter examining each instruction for its correctness. Thisprogram is known as object code. For example, if the program is using exp function, then the object code of this function should be, brought from the math library of the system and linked to the main program. Under UNIX, the linking is automatically done if no errors are detected when the cc command is used.
If any mistakes in the syntax and semantics of the language are discovered, they are listed out and the compilation process ends right there. The errors should be corrected in the 5 source program with the help of the editor and the compilation is done again.
Programming In Ansi C [E. Balagurusamy] on test. Please Read Notes: Brand New, International Softcover. File Size: Balagurusamy is an Indian educator, engineer and author. Leland L. Global Monthly Searches Exact: Date Checked: Though it has been suggested by the ANSI committee that every such compiler. Looking for books on C? Check our section of free e-books and guides on C now!
Topics covered includes: The examples included in this tutorial are all console programs. All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks. Download Programming. The book in its fifth edition continues to maintain its simplicity and lucid E.
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Computer programming in c lab manual. Cite this publication.. Tata McGraw-Hill Educa-. With the advent of languages such as c, structured programming became very popular and was result in terms of bug-free, easy-to- maintain, and reusable programs.
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ALGOL, etc. ANSI C standard emerged in the early s, this book was split into two If the program is error free then it is converted into object program.
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You will most likely find all of those. The aim of this book is to convey some of the C philosophy in a prac- tical way..The, complete, reference: Subsequently, several languages were announced. Although comments can appear anywhere, they cannot be nested in C. Although several alternative styles are possible, we should. Balagurusamy Publisher: Tata McGraw-Hill Educa-.
Start on. There is at least one statement in the executable part. Another important feature of C is its ability to extend itself. Outputs of the program run for two different inputs are also shown in Fig.